Curriculum for Pharmacology

(code:EB6003)

 

Guideline

I. Course Introduction

120 classes comprise 68 for lecturing, 44 for lab practice, and 8 for self-study.

Credits 8

II. Lecturing section

Lecturing and Research Section, Department of Biological Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy

III. Attribution

Pharmacology is a subject built on the experiment. This course functions as a bridge between the medicine and the pharmacy, and also between basic medicine and clinical medicine. The course combines the theory and lab practice to facilitate the undergraduates understanding the interaction between the drug and the body, and helps the students to initially master the basic methods in pharmacology research.

IV. Requirements

This course comprises of basic elements from pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. For pharmacokinetic, the general pattern of the drug delivery shall be mastered by students; for pharmacodynamics, effects of drug on body or pathogen shall be understood. The drug mechanism, clinical indications, adverse reactions, and contraindication also need to be understood. For lab experiments, the perceptual knowledge shall be acquired from both of the drug actions and the basic studying methods of pharmacology research.

V. Compulsory subject

 Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical chemistry

VI. References

  1. Textbook

Katzung BG et al. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology;12th, ed. 2012. The

McGraw-Hill Co..

Whalen K et al. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews for Pharmacology,

6th.2015. The Wolters Kluwer Co..

Qian Zhiyu, Pharmacology, 4th, ed. China medical science press, 2015, which is indicated as the textbook for undergraduate education by Ministry of Public Health of China;

Zhu Yichun, Pharmacology, 8th, ed. People’s medical health publishing house Co.,LTD, 2016;

  1. Journal

Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

3.  Website

Http://www.pharmacology2000.com/

 VII. Course organization

Contents

Lecturing

 Class Discussion

Self-study

Lab

Unit I Principles of Drug Therapy

8

0

0

4

  Unit II Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System

8

2

2

8

Unit III

Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System

8

2

2

8

Unit IV

Drugs Affecting the Cardiovascular System

14

2

2

4

UNIT V

Drugs Affecting the Endocrine System

8

0

0

0

Unit VI

Drugs Affecting Other Organs

2

0

0

4

UNIT VII

Chemotherapeutic Drugs

10

2

2

0

Unit VIII

Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Autacoids

2

0

0

0

Total

60

8

8

28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT I: Principles of Drug Therapy


Chapter 1: Pharmacokinetics

 

  1. Objective and requirements

   To master the basic regularity of Pharmacokinetic, parameters, and the definition;

   To understand the drug disposition and the influencing factors;

To know the compartmental model and the speed of drug delivery.

II. Key points

The pharmacokinetic profile and the main influencing factors;

The key parameters of pharmacokinetics.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

1. The Influencing factors of drug diffusion, absorption (such as pH, first-pass metabolism);

2. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins;

3. Blood–brain barrier, placental barrier;

4. Drug metabolism, such as microsomal mixed-function oxidase and cytochrome P450 system;

5. Induction or inhibition of enzyme;

6. Elimination, such as enterohepatic circulation;

7. Parameters, such as time-concentration curve, bioavailability, apparent volume of distribution, t1/2;

8.  Parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics, zero-order elimination kinetics, Compartmental Model;

9. Fixed does regimens.

IV. Definitions

transportation of drug, first-pass effect, redistribution, induction of microsomal enzyme activity, hepatoenteral circulation, bioavailability, steady state level

V. Study questions

1. What are the main influencing factors for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drug?

2. What are the consequences of the induction or the inhibition of enzyme?

3. What is the objective of pharmacokinetic?

4.    What are the general parameters of pharmacokinetic and their explanations?


Chapter 2: Drug-Receptor Interactions and Pharmacodynamics

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master basic definition and terminology, such as, therapeutic drug effect and adverse effect, dose-response relationship, receptor and ligand, receptor types, and signal transduction;

    To understand the mechanism, pharmacological action, mode of action, and the drug selection;

    To know the theory of drug-receptor interaction.

  1. Key points

   Terminology in pharmacodynamics

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Pharmacological action strengthens or weakens physiological and biochemical properties of human beings. Based on the drug efficacy or side effects, drug selection regulates the pharmacological actions, resulting to the adverse reactions during the therapeutic treatment;
  2. The adverse reactions include side effect, toxic reaction, secondary reaction, after effect, and allergy;
  3. Receptor properties, types, and the regulation;
  4. Types of drug based on the interaction between drug and receptor;
  5. Characteristics of the dose-effect curve: the four types of drug and receptor interactions.
  6. Mechanisms of drug actions: 1) specialized targets, e.g. receptor, ion channel, enzyme, and career. Signal transduction by ligand-receptor interactions to regulate physiological and biochemical properties of human beings. 2) dose-effect relationship, including dose-effect curve, maximum efficacy, potency, minimum effective dose,  minimal toxic dose, 50% effective dose(ED50), 50% lethal dose(LD50), therapeutic index(TI), reliable index.

IV. Definitions

general action, adverse reaction, etiological treatment, symptomatic treatment, allergy reaction, teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis; receptor regulation, agonist, partial agonist, antagonist, non-competitive antagonist, dose-response relationship, threshold dose, efficacy, potency, median effective dose, safety index, margin of safety, therapeutic index

VStudy questions

  1. What is dose-dependent effect? What properties could be concluded  from the dose-effect curve?

   2. How many types of the receptor based drug and the reference? What are the different characters of the types?

3. What is the drug selection, the advantage and the disadvantage of drug? How many types of adverse reactions of drugs?


UNIT II: Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System


Chapter 3: The Autonomic Nervous System

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the biological effects of the stimulation of cholinoceptor and adrenergic receptor;

    To master the classification of the neurotransmitter secreted by efferent nerve;

    To understand the signal transduction of efferent nerve;

    To understand the classification of cholinoceptor and adrenergic receptor, and the characteristics of subtypes;

    To know the biosynthesis, delivery, storage, secretion, and the metabolism of the acetylcholine and norepinephrine;

    To know the classification of drugs for centrifugal nerve.

  1. Key points

    Neurotransmitter and receptor of efferent nerves, effects of receptor stimulation and the mechanism

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Two types of efferent nerve based on the secreting neurotransmitter, noradrenergic nerve and cholinergic nerve;
  2. the biosynthesis, delivery, storage, secretion, and the metabolism of the acetylcholine and norepinephrine;
  3. Types of receptors. Cholinergic receptors: muscarinic receptors M (M1, M2, and M3) and nicotinic receptors N (N1 and N2); adrenergic receptor α (α1and α2) and β(β1 and β2). The subtypes of adrenergic receptor α, such as α1A, α1B, α1C, α2A, α2B, and α2C. The coexistence of varied receptors in the identical tissue;
  4. Molecular mechanisms of acetylcholine and norepinephrine;
  5. The common characteristics of drugs on the efferent nerve: direct to receptors ore influence neurotransmitters’ the synthesis, dispense, storage, and absorption;
  6. Types of drugs influencing efferent nerve.

V.  Definitions

sympathetic nervous system, cholinergic nerve, noradrenergic nerve, COMT, MAO, adenylyl cyclase (AC).

  1. Study questions
  1. What are the consequences of activation of M receptors or adrenergic receptors?
  2. What are the consequences of stimulation of efferent nerves and molecular mechanisms?
  3. What are the nerve fibers based on the types of cholinergic nerve, noradrenergic nerve?
  4. What are the mechanisms of elimination of the neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine?

 


Chapter 4: Cholinergic Agonists

 

  1. Objective and requirements

  To master the pharmaceutical actions of pilocarpine, neostigmine, and organophosphates;

To master the characteristics of actions, clinical applications, and adverse effects;

To master the mechanism of cholinedterase reactivators and atropine against organophosphates;

To understand the actions of acetylcholine binding to M receptors and N receptors;

To understand the characteristics of actions of physostigmine and clinical applications;

To know other cholinesterase inhibitors.

  1. Key points

 The actions of acetylcholine binding to M receptors and N receptors;

 The mechanisms of pilocarpine and neostigmine, the clinical applications,  and characteristics of actions.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

 1. The actions of acetylcholine binding to M receptors and N receptors;

 2. Pilocarpine directly binds and stimulates M receptors, and its local influences on the pupil, intraocular pressure, and visual acuity;

 3. Mechanism of neostigmine as cholinesterase inhibitor, characteristics, clinical applications and adverse effects;

 4. Actions of physostigmine, pyridostigmine, edrophone, galantamine, tacrine;

 5.  Organophosphates exert their effect by irreversibly binding to acetylcholinesterase, leading to acute intoxication from stimulating M receptors and N receptors;

6.  Mechanism of pralidoxime Iodide or pralidoxime chloride reactivating the enzyme.

IV. Definitions

cholinoceptor agonists, pilocarpine, cholinesterase, neostigmine, organophosphates, cholinesterase reactivator

V. Study Questions

 1. What are the classifications of cholinoceptor blocking drugs? Please give the examples in detail.

2. What are drugs reducing intraocular pressure?

3. What are the actions of cholinoceptor on eyes?

4. What are the characteristics of neostigmine actions and the clinical applications?

5. What is the mechanism of cholinesterase reactivator and the clinical applications?

6. Why do the muscarinic receptors blocking drugs or cholinesterase reactivators could be applied for toxication of organophosphates?


Chapter 5: Cholinergic Antagonists

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the mechanism of atropine, clinical applications and adverse reactions;

    To understand the action characteristics of anisodamine and scopolamine;

      To know the characteristics and applications of methenamine, tropicamide, propantheline, and dicyclomine.

  1. Key points

     Pharmaceutical actions of muscarinic receptor-blocking drugs and the characteristics of actions, such as atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine

III. Lecturing contents and important points

1. Atropine is a muscarinic receptor-blocking drug that acts in the way of the competitive inhibition. It has low selectivity on sub-types of muscarinic receptors, and there are different effects of atropine in varying organs;

2. Clinical applications, adverse effects, symptoms, and treatments;

3. Effects of anisodamine and scopolamine on central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, and their applications;

4.  Characteristics and applications of methenamine, tropicamide, propantheline, and dicyclomine.

IV. Definitions

Cholinoceptor-blocking drugs, Atropine, Scopolamine, Anisodamine.

V. Study Questions

  1. What are the characteristics and clinical applications of atropine, anisodamine, and scopolamine?
  2. What are the drugs characterized of mydriatic effect?


Chapter 6: Adrenergic Agonists

 

  1. Objective and requirements

  To master the actions of adrenaline, norepinephrine, and Isopropyl adrenaline, and to master the clinical applications of them;

To understand the pharmaceutical actions of dopamine and ephedrine, and to understand the clinical applications of them;

To know the actions of aramine, phenylephrine, clonidine, and their clinical applications.

  1. Key points

Effects of the activation of α or β adrenergic receptor;

Drug selection and clinical applications.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points

1. Basic structure of adrenergic agonists and structure activity relationship;

2. Selectivity of norepinephrine, effects on cardiovascular system, clinical applications, adverse effects and prevetion;

3. Effects of adrenaline on heart function, blood vessel of different locations, and blood pressure. Other actions of adrenaline, including tracheal smooth muscle, carbohydrate Metabolism, clinical applications, adverse effects and prevention;

           4. Selectivity of Isopropyl adrenaline. Actions including heart function, blood vessel, clinical application, adverse effects and prevention;

    5. Effects of dopamine on α, β, and D receptors and on cardiovascular system. Effects of stimulating D receptor on kidney function. Clinical applications;

    6. Effects of ephedrine on cardiovascular system, tracheal smooth muscle, and CNS. Clinical applications and tolerance development;

    7. Actions of aramine and Isopropyl adrenaline and clinical applications;

    8. β1 adrenergic agonists with positive inotropic effect, such as dobutamine, are suitable for short-term therapy to avoid drug tolerance;

    9. β2 adrenergic agonists, such as salbutamol and  terbutaline, are suitable for relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and treating asthma.

IV. Definitions

catecholamines, COMT, MAO, adrenoceptor-activating drug, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, adrenaline, dopamine, ephedrine, isoprenaline

V. Study questions

1. What are the effects of adrenaline on varying locations of blood vessels and blood pressure?

2. What are the receptor selectivity of adrenaline, norepinephrine, and Isopropyl adrenaline and the differences?

3. What are the actions of dopamine and the clinical applications?

4. What are the influences of adrenaline on varying locations of blood vessels by means of binding to receptors?

5. What are other adrenergic agonists and their clinical applications?


Chapter 7: Adrenergic Antagonists

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the basic actions of α and β adrenergic antagonists;

To understand the characteristics and applications of propranolol, phentolamine, and prazosin.

  1. Key points

Effects of blocking α and β adrenergic receptors;

Classification of adrenergic antagonists and their applications.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Adrenaline reversal;
  2. Actions and clinical applications of nonselective α adrenergic antagonists, such as phentolamine, tolazoline,  and phenoxybenzamine;
  3. Actions and clinical applications of selective α adrenergic antagonist- prazosin;
  4. Actions of β adrenergic antagonists, including influences on blood vessels, heart, and bronchus through blocking β adrenergic receptor;
  5. Clinical applications of β adrenergic antagonists and adverse effects;
  6. Propranolol: in vivo duration, actions, clinical applications and major adverse effects;
  7. Characteristics of metoprolol, acebutolol, pindolol, and labetalol.

IV. Definitions

phentolamine, intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, adrenaline reversal, propranolol, metoprolol, labetalol

V. Study Questions

1. What is adrenaline reversal?

2. What illness could β adrenergic antagonists be use for?

3. What are the actions of phentolamine and the clinical therapies?

4. What are the characteristics of propranolol, metoprolol, pindolol, and labetalol?


UNIT III: Drugs Affecting the Central Nervous System


Chapter 8: Neurodegenerative Diseases

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the action and clinical application of levodopa as anti-Parkinson drug;

    To understand the action and clinical application of CNS cholinergic antagonists;

    To know the actions of anti-Parkinson drugs.

  1. Key points

    Treatment of Parkinson disease with levodopa and the major adverse effects

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Because parkinsonism results from insufficient dopamine in specifc regions of the brain, attempts have been made to replenish the dopamine deficiency. Dopamine itself does not cross the blood-brain barrier, but its immediate precursor, levodopa, is actively transported into the CNS and is converted to dopamine in the brain;
  2. Carbidopa, a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, diminishes the metabolism of levodopa in the gastrointestinal tract and peripheral tissues, thereby increasing the availability of levodopa to the CNS;
  3. Amantadine increases release of dopamine, reduces absorption of dopamine, and stimulates dopamine receptors;
  4. Antiparkinsonism action of trihexyphenidyl as a CNS cholinergic antagonist.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Drugs used in Parkinson disease

V.  Definitions

Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Levodopa, carbidopa, Trihexyphenidyl, donepezil

VI. Study Questions

  1. What is the mechanism of levodopa in Parkinson disease? And what drugs could influence the pharmaceutical actions of levodopa?


Chapter 9: Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the actions of benzodiazepines, mechanisms, and clinical applications;

To understand the actions of barbiturates, mechanism, and clinical applications.

  1. Key points

Actions of barbiturates and mechanisms

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Actions of benzodiazepines, including reduction of anxiety, sedative and hypnotic actions, anterograde amnesia, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant;
  2. Mechanism of actions of benzodiazepines, clinical applications and adverse effects;
  3. Actions of barbiturates, mechanism and clinical applications.

III. Self-study contents and key points

To master the pharmacokinetic of benzodiazepines

IVDefinitions

sedative-hypnotics, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, diazepam, phenobarbital

VStudy Questions

  1. What are the clinical applications of benzodiazepines and the adverse effects?


Chapter 10: CNS Stimulants

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the action of caffeine and the clinical treatment;

To understand the actions of nikethamide, dimefline, and lobeline;

To know the actions of piracetam, meclofenoxate, and citicoline.

  1. Key points

Actions of nikethamide, dimefline, lobeline, and their clinical applications

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Classification of CNS stimulants;
  2. Actions of caffeine, including stimulating CNS, increasing contractility and a mild diuretic action;
  3. Mechanism of ritalin, including stimulating the cortex and other areas of the brain; Actions of ritalin, including treating infantile enuresis, mild depression, and narcolepsy;
  4. Effects of benzocaine on cerebral cortex to improve the uses of   glucose, amino acid, and phospholipid. Also activating, protecting, and repairing the brain tissues;
  5. Therapeutic use of nikethamide, dimefline, and lobeline in stimulation of respiratory center, applying for treating respiratory failure and CO poisoning.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

    Therapeutic actions of piracetam, meclofenoxate, and citicoline

  1. Definitions

central stimulants, caffeine, piracetam, nikethamide, dimefline, lobeline

VI. Study Questions

  1. What are the mechanisms of caffeine, nikethamide, dimefline, lobeline, and their different actions?


Chapter 11: Anesthetics

 

I. Objective and requirements

    To know the pharmaceutical actions of general anaesthetics, mechanisms and clinical applications

II Key points

Actions of common inhalation anaesthetics and intravenous anaesthetics

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Classification of general anaesthetics and combined anaesthetics;
  2. The inhalation anesthetics block the excitatory postsynaptic current of the nicotinic receptors;
  3. Characteristics of diethyl ether, thiopentone,and ketamine.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Mechanism of general anaesthetics and pharmacokinetic

  1. Definitions

general anaesthetics, intravenous anaesthetics, combined anaesthetics

  1. Study Questions
  1. What are the classifications of general anaesthetics, and what are the clinical applications of these general anaesthetics?


Chapter 12: Antidepressants

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the antidepressive action of tricyclic antidepressant, mechanism, and clinical use;

  1. Key points

Mechanism of tricyclic antidepressant

  1. Lecturing contents and important point
  1. Actions other antianxiety drugs, such as  tricyclic antidepressant, tetracyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors;

IV.  Definitions

antianxiety drugs


Chapter 13: Antipsychotic Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the actions of chlorpromazine, mechanism, clinical use, and major adverse effects;

    To master the antidepressive action of tricyclic antidepressant, mechanism, and clinical use;

    To understand the classification of drugs for psychiatric disorders;

    To understand the actions of the phenothiazines and the applications;

    To know the action of lithium carbonate and the applications;

    To know the actions of antianxiety drugs and the applications.

  1. Key points

Mechanism of chlorpromazine in treating psychiatric disorders

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Classification of drugs for Psychiatric Disorders;
  2. Mechanism of schizophrenia: Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component and probably reflects some fundamental biochemical abnormality, possibly a dysfunction of the mesolimbic or mesocortical dopaminergic neuronal pathways. In addition, the increases of Ach, NA, and 5-HT are also relative with schizophrenia to some extent;
  3. Four dopaminergic pathways in the CNS;
  4. Pharmacokinetic of chlorpromazine, pharmaceutical actions, and clinical applications, such as treating psychiatric disorders, anti-vomiting, regulating temperature, inhibiting of CNS, blocking α receptors, and influencing the endocrine system;
  5. Adverse effects of chlorpromazine, including common adverse effects, extrapyramidal adverse effects, and  postural hypotension;
  6. Actions of butyrophenones, benzodiazepine, benzamides and clinical applications;
  7. Actions other antianxiety drugs, such as  tricyclic antidepressant, tetracyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors;
  8. Actions of antimania drugs and clinical use;
  9. Actions of antianxiety drugs and clinical use.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Structure-activity relationship of phenothiazines

V.  Definitions

antipsychotic antimanic-antidepressive drugs, antianxiety drugs, phenothiazines, chlorpromazine, imipramine, lithium carbonate

VI. Study Questions

What are the mechanism of chlorpromazine in treating psychiatric disorders and the major adverse effects?


Chapter 14: Opioids

 

IObjective and requirements

    To master actions of morphine and pethidine, mechanisms, and clinical applications;

    To understand the characteristics of fentanyl, methadone, tramadol, and pentazocine;

    To know other kinds of analgesics.

IIKey points

Analgesic actions of morphine and pethidine and their mechanisms

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Opioid receptors and their distribution;
  2. Actions of morphine: analgesic action by interacting with opioid receptors in the CNS; respiratory depression by reduction of the sensitivity of respiratory center neurons to carbon dioxide;
  3. Clinical applications of morphine, such as analgesia and cardiac asthma;
  4. Adverse effects of morphine, such as tolerance and physical dependence;
  5. Relief of cough of codeine;
  6. Analgesic action of pethidine, fentanyl, and methadone;
  7. Characteristics of pentazocine;
  8. Principle of analgesics.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

Opioid receptors, opioids, and analgesic action

V.  Definitions

analgesics, opium, encephalin, endorphin morphine, codeine, pethidine, methadone, pentazocine, rotundine

VI. Study Questions

1. What are the different actions between morphine and pethidine in analgesia and other pharmaceutical applications?


Chapter 15: Epilepsy

 

I. Objective and requirements

    To master the actions of phenytoin sodium, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and ethosuximide; and to master the clinical applications and major adverse effects;

    To understand the actions of magnesium sulfate and clinical applications;

    To understand the actions of benzodiazepines and clinical applications.

II. Key points

    Mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs, such as phenytoin sodium, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and ethosuximide

III Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Types of epilepsy;
  2. Pharmaceutical action of phenytoin sodium, application and adverse effects;
  3. Antiepileptic mechanism of barbitone and applications;
  4. Antiepileptic actions of carbamazepine, ethosuximide, and sodium valproate;
  5. Applications of clonazepam;
  6. Treatment of seizure with magnesium sulfate.

IVSelf-study contents and key points

Pharmacokinetic of phenytoin sodium

V.  Definitions

epilepsy, antiepileptics, phenytoin sodium ethosuximide, anticonvulsants  magnesium sulfate

VI. Study Questions

  1. What is the antiepileptic mechanism of phenytoin sodium?


UNIT IV: Drugs Affecting the Cardiovascular System


Chapter 16: Heart Failure

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the actions and mechanisms of drugs used to treat heart failure, such as cardiacglycoside, strengthening cardiac contraction.

II. Key points

    Actions and mechanisms of positive inotropic drugs, such as cardiacglycoside and other drugs unlike cardiacglycoside.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Pathophysiology of chronic heart failure: impaired ability of the heart to adequately fil with and/or eject blood;
  2. Beneficial effects of pharmacologic intervention include reduction of the load on the myocardium, decreased extracellular flid volume, improved cardiac contractility, and slowing the rate of cardiac remodeling;
  3. Inotropic agents, such as cardiac glycosides, increase the contractility of the heart muscle and influence the sodium and calciumion flows in the cardiac muscle, thereby increasing contraction of the atrial and ventricular myocardium (positive inotropic action). The adverse effects include cardiac effect and central nervous system effects;
  4. Another inotropic agent different to cardiac glycosides, such as amrinone, increasing cAMP to strengthen the muscle contraction;
  5. Diuretics, ace inhibitors, and adrenoreceptor blockers could reduce the symptoms of volume overload by different mechanisms.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

    Pharmacokinetics of inotropic drugs and structure-activity relationship.

V.  Definitions

cardiac insufficiency, congestive heart failure, cardiac glycosides, digitalis, positive inotropic effect, digoxin, strophanthin K, amrinone milrinone.

VI. Study Questions

  1. What are the mechanisms of inotropic drugs, diuretics, ace inhibitors, and adrenoreceptor blockers used to treat heart failure?


Chapter 17: Antiarrhythmics

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the mechanism of antiarrhythmics, including quinidine, lidocaine, propafenone, amiodarone, and verapamil;

To know the clinical applications of antiarrhythmics, including procainamide, phenytoin sodium, propafenone, and bretylium tosylate.

II. Key points

    Mechanism of antiarrhythmics, including quinidine, lidocaine, propafenone, amiodarone, and verapamil

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Electrophysiological system of heart, membranepotential of Cardiac muscle cells, and effective refractory period (ERP);
  2. Classification and the mechanism of antiarrhythmics;
  3. Actions of Antiarrhythmic drug. Quinidine binds to open and inactivated sodium channels and prevents sodium infux, thus slowing the rapid upstroke during Phase 0. It also decreases the slope of Phase 4 spontaneous depolarization and inhibits potassium channels. Because of these actions, it slows conduction velocity and increases refractoriness. Lidocaine shortens Phase 3 repolarization and decreases the duration of the action potential. Propafenone slows conduction in all cardiac tissues and is considered to be a broad-spectrum antiarrhythmic agent. Verapamil shows greater action on the heart than on vascular smooth muscle, decreasing the inward current carried by calcium (Ca2+), resulting in a decreased rate of Phase 4 spontaneous depolarization and also slowing conduction in tissues that are dependent on calcium currents, such as the AV node.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

Normal electrophysiology of cardiac myocyte, membranepotential, effective refractory period (ERP), and characteristics of pharmacokinetics of antiarrhythmics.

V.  Definitions

antiarrhythmic drugs, action potential duration(APD), reentry, quinidine, lidocaine, propafenone, propranolol, amiodarone, verapamil

VI. Study Questions

What are the mechanism of antiarrhythmics, e.g. quinidine, lidocaine, propafenone, amiodarone, and verapamil


Chapter 18: Antianginal Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the actions of antianginal drugs, including organic nitrates, β-blockers, calcium- channel blockers, and sodium channel blocker;

    To master the mechanisms and therapeutic uses of antianginal drugs.

  1. Key points

    Factors of angina pectoris;

Mechanism of antianginal drugs.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. It is caused by coronary blood flow that is insufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the myocardium, leading to ischemia. The imbalance between oxygen delivery and utilization may result during exertion, from a spasm of the vascular smooth muscle, or from obstruction of blood vessels caused by atherosclerotic lesions;
  2. Organic nitrates inhibit coronary vasoconstriction or spasm, increasing perfusion of the myocardium and, thus, relieving vasospastic angina. In addition, nitrates relax the veins (venodilation), decreasing preload and myocardial oxygen consumption. Because of this action, nitrates are effective in treating effort-induced angina (classic angina);
  3. The β-adrenergic–blocking agents decrease the oxygen demands of the myocardium by lowering both the rate and the force of contraction of the heart. They suppress the activation of the heart by blocking β1 receptors, and they reduce the work of the heart by decreasing heart rate, contractility, cardiac output, and blood pressure. With β-blockers, the demand for oxygen by the myocardium is reduced both during exertion and at rest. Because of these effects, β-blockers are the drugs of choice to treat effort-induced angina. The β-blockers reduce the frequency and severity of angina attacks. β-Blockers are ineffctive against and should not be used in vasospastic angina;
  4. The calcium-channel blockers protect the tissue by inhibiting the entrance of calcium into cardiac and smooth muscle cells of the coronary and systemic arterial beds. All calcium-channel blockers are, therefore, arteriolar vasodilators that cause a decrease in smooth muscle tone and vascular resistance. At clinical doses, these agents affect primarily the resistance of peripheral and coronary arteriolar smooth muscle. Their use in the treatment of effort-induced angina relies on the reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption resulting from decreased afterload. Their efficacy in vasospastic angina is due to relaxation of the coronary arteries;
  5. Atherosclerosis influences the absorption of cholesterol, alters the metabolism of cholesterol and triglycerides, and inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol to reduce the blood lipid.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Types of angina and mechanisms

  1. Definition

      angina pectoris, antianginal drugs, nitroglycerin, propranolol, nifedipine, atherosclerosis, cholestyramine, clofibrate, lovastatin, nicotinic acid

  1. Study Questions
  1. What are the mechanisms of antianginal drugs against angina, such as organic nitrates, β-adrenergic–blocking agents,and calcium-channel blockers?

 


Chapter 19: Antihypertensives

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the actions of antihypertensives, mechanisms, and therapeutic uses;

To know the classification of antihypertensives.

II. Key points

    Mechanisms of antihypertensives drugs, such as clonidine, reserpine, prazosin, propranolol, hydralazine, nifedipine, hydrochlorothiazide, and captopril

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Definition of hypertension, the improvement of hypertension, the complications, and the classification;
  2. Actions of antihypertensives drugs, such as clonidine, reserpine, prazosin, propranolol, hydralazine, nifedipine, hydrochlorothiazide, and captopril;
  3. Characteristics of antihypertensives drugs, mechanisms, therapeutic uses, and major adverse effects;
  4. The principles of antihypertension therapy.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

   Pathophysiology of hypertension

  1. Definition

hypertension, primary hypertension, secondary hypertension, antihypertension drugs, clonidine, reserpine, prazosin, propranolol, hydralazine, nifedipine, hydrochlorothiazide, captopril.

  1. Study Questions
  1. What are the mechanisms of antihypertensives drugs, e.g. clonidine, reserpine, prazosin, propranolol, hydralazine, nifedipine, hydrochlorothiazide, and captopril?


Chapter 20: Blood Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action, and clinical application of anticoagulants, coagulants and antifibrinolytics;

To understand the pharmacological effects and clinical application of antianemic drugs;

To understand the pharmacological effects and clinical application of the antiplatelet drugs;

To understand the pharmacological effects and clinical application of leukocyte-stimulating agents.

  1. Key points

The pharmacological effects and mechanism of anticoagulants, coagulants and antifibrinolytics.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. The definition of anemia;

2. In order to treat the iron-deficiency anemia and megaloblastic anemia, we use ferrous sulfate, folic acid and vitamin B12, which can supplement the insufficient iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in body respectively;

3. The process of folic acid and vitamin B12 involved in, which include the transfer of one-carbon groups, nucleotide synthesis, amino acid interconversion and the formation of blood cell;

4. The mechanism of procoagulant and anticoagulant are oppositional and unified in blood flow, which can maintain homeostasis and the flow of blood together;

5. Procoagulant drugs are applied to the hemorrhagic disease caused by coagulation dysfunction, which could be via the activation of certain coagulation factor in the coagulation process;

6. Anticoagulants can inhibit the clotting factors in the process of blood coagulation that prevent the formation of thrombosis;

7. The pharmacological effects and clinical application of vitamine K;

8. The anticoagulant effect of heparin was played through the activation of antithrombin III and then the inactivation of clotting factor; and the clinical application and major adverse reactions of heparin;

9. The pharmacological effects and clinical application of coumarin;

10. Streptokinase activates fibrinolytic system, leading to thrombolysis, which is used to treat the thromboembolic disorders;

11. The pharmacological effects of leucocyte-stimulating agents;

12. The pharmacological effects and clinical application of hemopoietic growth factor.

  1. Self-study contents and key points

The pharmacological effects and clinical application of the antiplatelet drugs and leukocyte-stimulating agents.

  1. Definitions

antianemic drugs, ferrous sulfate, folic acid, vitamin B12, coagulants, anticoagulants, vitamine K, antifibrinolytics, tranexamic acid, heparin, coumarin  warfarin, fibrinolytic drugs, streptokinase

  1. Study questions
  1. What are the application and major adverse effects of heparin and coumarin in clinical treatment?

2. What are the clinical application and major adverse effects of streptokinase?

 


Chapter 21: Hyperlipidemias

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action, clinical application and adverse reactions of statins,fibrates and cholestyramine.

To understand the clinical application and adverse reactons of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor;

To know the pharmacological effect, mechanism of action, clinical application and adverse reactions of probucol.

II.  Key points

The mechanism of hypolipidemic of antiatherosclerotic drugs.

IIILecturing contents and important points

  1. The classification of lipidemic-modulatling drugs and the application of antiatherosclerotic drugs;
  2. The characteristics of actions and major adverse effects of the key drugs.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

Classification of hyperlipidemia.

V. Definitions

atherosclerosis, lipidemic-modulatling drugs, antiatherosclerotic drugs, cholesterol,triglyceride, phospholipid, free fatty acid, cholesteryl ester, free cholesterol, total cholesterol, lipoproteins, chylomicron, very low density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein.

VI. Consider questions

  1. What are the actions of hypolipidemic via antiatherosclerotic drugs?


Chapter 22: Diuretics

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the pharmacological effects, clinical application and major adverse reactions of three types of diuretics;

To understand the pharmacological effects and clinical application of osmotic diuretics.

II.Key points

The features of diuretic action;

Main applications of the three types of diuretics.

III.Lecturing contents and important points

  1. The effect of diuretics to urinary physiology of renal and the formation of    urine;
  2. The effect of diuretics to the filtration, reabsorption and secretion function of kidney;
  3. The process of diuresis effect of diuretics;
  4. The diuretic targets and the impact on electrolytes of furosemide, thiazides,   and spironolactone;
  5. The strength of diuresis effect, clinical application and major adverse reactions of furosemide, thiazides and spironolactone;
  6. The principles of clinical application of diuretics;
  7. The effects and application of mannitol acts as osmotic diuretics.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

1. The urinary physiology, function of reabsorption and secretion of kidney;

2. The pharmacological effects and clinical application of osmotic diuretics.

V. Definitions

diuretics, furosemide, thiazides, spironolactone, triamterene, osmotic diuretics

VI. Study questions

  1. What are the characteristics of the three types of diuretics?
  2. What are the distinguishes about application among the three types of diuretics?


UNIT V: Drugs Affecting the Endocrine System


Chapter 23: Pituitary and Thyroid

 

I. Objective and requirements

To understand biological synthesis and secretion and regulation of thyroid hormones;

To master the action, mechanism of action, usages and adverse effects of thyroid hormone and anti-thyroid drugs;

To master the influence of varying dosing of iodine on the synthesis of thyroid hormone.

II.    Key points

The synthesis, secretion, regulation, pharmacological action and clinical application of thyroid hormone;

The relationship between the mechanism of action of anti-thyroid drugs and the synthesis of hyroid hormone;

Clinical applications and main adverse effects.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

1. The synthesis, secretion, regulation, pharmacological action and clinical application of thyroid hormone;

2. The features of commonly prescribed drugs including propylthiouracil and methyl sulfhydryl imidazole, carbimazole, iodine, iodide, radioactive iodine and beta blocker drug;

3. Characteristics of actions, clinical applications, adverse effects of  hiourea  and  iodine agents.

IV. Self-study content and key points

Classification and structure features of thyroxine.

V. Definitions

thyroid hormones, thioureas, iodine, thyrotropin releasing hormone

VI.  Study questions

1. What are the characteristics of action of thiourea drugs?

2. What is the therapy for a patient of hyperthyroidism crisis?


Chapter 24: Insulin and Other Glucose-Lowering Drugs

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the pharmacological action, the main adverse reaction and preventionof insulin;

To understand the characteristics of action, clinical applications and the major adverse effect of commonly prescribed hypoglycemic agents;

To understand the characteristics of the insulin preparations.

II.    Key points

   Insulin: action, mechanism, application, and adverse effects;

   Hypoglycemic agents: application and drug interactions.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

1. Pharmacological effects, mechanism of action, intracorporal process, clinical application, adverse reactions and its prevention of insulin;

2. Characteristics of actions, clinical applications and the main adverse reactions of hypoglycemic agents;

3. The features of commonly prescribed drugs including tolbutamide, chloride sulfonyl urea, glyburide and glenn beauty urea, metformin, phenyl ethyl forint, acarbose, rosiglitazone, raigor column nai;

IV. Self-study content and key points

1. The structure characteristics of oral hypoglycemic;

2. The action characteristics of insulin preparations.

V. Definitions

insulin, sulfonylureas, diguanides, troglitazone, acarbose

VI.  Study questions

1. What are the differences and similarities between insulin and oral medications in the mechanism of action?

2. What are the function and application of insulin?


Chapter 25: Estrogens and Androgens (self-study)


Chapter 26: Adrenal Hormones

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the classification of glucocorticoid, pharmacological action, action mechanism, clinical application and the main adverse reactions;

To understand the process characteristics in vivo of glucocorticoid;

To understand the principles of rational administration of drug;

To know the mineralocorticoid and corticotrophin.

II.    Key points

   Physiological effect of glucocorticoid, pharmacological action, mechanism, characteristics of actions, intracorporal process, clinical application, major adverse effects, and contraindications.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Secretion regulation of glucocorticoid;

2.    pharmacokinetic of glucocorticoid;

3.    Physiological effects, pharmacological action, mechanism of action, clinical application, adverse effects,prevention, and contraindications of glucocorticoid.

IV. Self-study content and key points

1. Structure-function relationship of the sugar cortical hormone drugs;

2. The action characteristics of mineralocorticoid and corticotrophin.

V. Definitions

adrenocortical hormones, cortisone, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids

VI. Study questions

  1. Please elucidate the main pharmacological actions of glucocorticoids and the difference between glucocorticoids and aspirin in anti-inflammatory effects and the mechanism.
  2. What are the adverse effects and the preventions of glucocorticoids? What are the damages of drug abuse?


UNIT VI: Drugs Affecting Other Organs


Chapter 27: Respiratory System (Self-study)


Chapter 28: Gastrointestinal and Antiemetic Drugs

 

I. Objective and requirements

    To master the effect produced by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor after activation;

    To understand the pharmacological effects, clinical applications and major adverse effects of important H1 receptor antagonists;

    To understand the pharmacological effects, clinical applications and major adverse reactions of H2 receptor antagonists;

    To understand the digestants and antacids;

    To understand laxative, antidiarrheal and other drugs.

II. Key points

    The clinical applications and major adverse effects of H1 and H2 receptor antagonists;

    The receptor types of histamine.

    The features of first-generation and second-generation antihistamines.

    The pharmacological effects and clinical applications of digestants and antacids.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

       1. The distribution, physiological effects and pharmacological effects of histamine receptors;

       2. The classification of histamine receptor antagonist;

3. The pharmacological effects, clinical applications and adverse reactions of H1 receptor antagonists;

4. The pharmacokinetics, physiological effects, clinical applications and adverse effects of H2 receptor antagonists;

       5. The pharmacological effects, mechanism of action, clinical application and adverse effects of digestants and antacids.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

The features of histamine and the structure of H1 and H2 receptor antagonists;

The physiological effects and clinical applications of laxative, antidiarrheal and other drugs.

V. Definitions

Histamine, Histamine receptor antagonists, cimedidine, ranitidine,famotidine, nizatidine, roxatidine, digestants, antacids, cimetidine, pirenzepine, omeprazole, Misoprostol, laxative, magnesium sulfate, antidiarrheal

VI. Study questions

  1. What are the mechanisms of cimetidine, pirenzepine and omeprazole in treating the gastric ulcer acting as the role of anti-acid drugs?

2. Please elucidate the classification, physiological effects, adverse effects and clinical application of histamine receptor antagonists.

 

UNIT VII: Chemotherapeutic Drugs


Chapter 30: Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy

 

I. Objective and requirements

To master the definition of the antibacterial drugs, mechanisms for the antibacterial drugs, and the mechanism for drug resistance;

   To understand the principle of the rational dosing;

   To know the interactions among drug, body, and pathogen.

 II. Key points

   Terminologies in antimicrobial therapy;

Mechanism of antimicrobial action;

Mechanism of tolerance;

Principle of rational dosing;

Synthesis of mucopeptide and the targets of antimicrobials;

Bacterial protein synthesis and the targets of antimicrobials.

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Terminology

antimicrobials, chemotherapy, chemotherapeutics, antibacterial spectrum, antibacterial activity, bacteriostatic drugs, bactericidal drug, chemotherapeutic index, postantibiotic effect

  1. Mechanism of action

Inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls;

Increasing the permeability of bacterial membrane;

Inhibiting the synthesis of DNA and RNA;

Inhibiting the protein synthesis;

  1. Drug tolerance and the mechanism;
  2. Rational dosing of antimicrobial drugs.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

   The classification of antimicrobial drugs;

   The reference to drug selection for the treatment of common clinical pathogenic microorganism;

V.  Definitions

antibiotics, chemotherapy, resistance

  1. Study questions
  1. Please elucidate the mechanism of antimicrobial action and the mechanism of bacterial tolerance


Chapter 31: Cell Wall Inhibitors

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of β-lactam antibiotics and the influencing factors.

To master the mechanism of the bacterial resistance to drug

To master the spectrum of penicillin and semi synthetic penicillin, clinical application, adverse effects

To understand the history of cephalosporins and characteristics of the three- generation of cephalosporins

To understand the characteristics of non β-lactam antibiotics

II. Key points

Spectrum of penicillin G, the mechanism of antibacterial action, tolerance, clinical application, allergy, and prevention;

The classification of semi synthetic penicillin and the characteristics

The generations of cephalosporins, spectrum, and enzymatic inactivation

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Common characteristics of β-lactam antibiotics, mechanism, drug resistance, and adverse effects
  2. The classification of semi synthetic penicillin and the characteristics
  3. The mechanism of bacterial resistance
  4. The characteristic of the three generations of cephalosporins

IV. Self-study contents and key points

   The structure of β-lactam antibiotics

   The characteristic of the third-generation cephalosporins, oxacephem

V. Definitions

   β-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins, penicillin V

  1. Study questions
  1. What is the antibacterial mechanism of penicillin?
  2. What is the mechanism of bacterial drug resistance?
  3. What solutions could be applied for the protection against shock by using penicillin?
  4. Please elucidate the primary route of cephalosporins development and the characteristics of individual generation.

 


Chapter 32: Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the characteristics of aminoglycoside antibiotics;

To master the spectra of streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, Isepamicin, and to master the indications and the adverse effects of the above antibiotics;

To understand the risks of drug dosing and the interactions among drugs.

  1. Key points

   Mechanisms of bactericidal actions and the whole process of the aminoglycoside antibiotics inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis;

   Bacterial drug resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics;

   The common characteristics of aminoglycoside antibiotics;

    The pharmaceutical actions and the clinical use of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, and spectinomycin.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Common characteristics of aminoglycoside antibiotics, including the duration of drug action, spectrum, mechanisms, drug resistance, and major adverse effects;
  2. The drug actions of frequently used aminoglycoside agents, including streptomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, Isepamicin, spectinomycin, and neomycinthe, and characteristics of clinical application of the above antibiotics.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

  The development and characteristics of aminoglycoside antibiotics;

  The clinical application of new type of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

V. Definitions

aminoglycosides, streptomycin, gentamicin, polymyxin B

  1. Study questions

Please elucidate the bactericidal effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and the main adverse effects.

 


Chapter 33: Quinolones, Folic Acid Antagonists, and Urinary Tract Antiseptics

 

  1. Objective and requirements

To master the spectra of quinolones and sulfanilamide group;

To master the mechanisms and the clinical use;

To master the mechanism of the combination of SD and SMZ synergizing     with TMP;

   To understand the clinical use of nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles.

  1. Key points

   The mechanism of quinolones; the main characteristics of the third generation of antibiotics and the clinical application;

   The mechanism of sulfanilamide synergizing with TMP;

   The different spectra of the quinolones against Bacillus typhi, Pesudomoas aeruginosa, and MRSA.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Spectra of the quinolones and the sulfanilamide group;
  2. Mechanism of action;
  3. Mechanism of the combination of SD and SMZ synergizing with TMP;
  4. Different spectra of the quinolones against Bacillus typhi, Pseudomoas aeruginosa, and MRSA.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

    Clinical application of nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles

  1. Definitions

quinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, nitrofurans

  1. Study questions

    Please elucidate the mechanism of quinolones, the clinical application, and typical agents.


Chapter 34: Antimycobacterials

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the drug actions of currently recommended first-line agents utilized for antituberculosis therapy, including isoniazide, rifampicin, ethambutol, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide;

To master adverse effects, tolerance, and indication;

To understand the clinical use of antileprotics.

  1. Key points

    The characteristics of isoniazide, rifampicin, and ethambutol;

    The adverse effects and the tolerance in long-term treatment;

    The principle of antimycobacterial therapy.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Classification of antimycobacterials;
  2. Mechanism, pharmacokinetic and adverse effects;
  3. Necessity of combination therapy and short-term therapy.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Characteristics of antileprotics and clinical therapy

V.  Definitions

antituberculosis agents, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol

VI. Study questions

Please elucidate the differences between the isoniazide and rifampicin in the aspects of drug action, mechanism, and adverse effects.


Chapter 35: Antifungal Drugs (self-study)

 

Chapter 36: Antiprotozoal Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

   To master the targets of antimalarial durgs, such as chloroquin, quinine, artemisinin, primaquine, and pyrimethamine, against malaria, and to understand the life cycle;

To master the clinical use and main adverse effects;

To master the pharmaceutical actions of metronidazole and tinidazole against amoeba, and the clinical applications.

  1. Key points

Classification of anti-malaria drugs, targets, mechanism, and main adverse effects;

Classification of anti-amoeba drugs, targets and the characteristics of drug action.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. Life circle of malaria;
  2. Targets of the antimalarial drugs, such as such as chloroquin, quinine, artemisinin, primaquine, and pyrimethamine;
  3.  Clinical applications and adverse effects;
  4. Classification of anti-amoeba drugs, pharmaceutical actions and clinical applications.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

Characteristics of other antimalarial drugs;

Characteristics of antitrichomonal drugs.

  1. Definitions

antimalarial drugs, chloroquine, primaquine, pyrimethamine amebicides, metronidazole, tinidazole

  1. Study questions
  1. What are the properties of antimalarial drugs from the aspects of classification, targets, and clinical applications?
  2. What are the actions of metronidazole and the clinical applications?

 

Chapter 37: Anthelmintic Drugs (self-study)


Chapter 38: Antiviral Drugs (self-study)


Chapter 39: Anticancer Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

    To master the pharmaceutical actions of anticancer drugs, applications, and adverse effects;

To know the growth circle of tumor cell and the significance of improving the anticancer actions;

To know the both biological and biochemical mechanisms of types of anticancer drugs;

To know the mechanism of the cancer cell resistance, indications, and adverse effects.

  1. Key points

   The mechanisms of different types of anticancer drugs, indications and adverse effects, including 1) interfering with the biosynthesis, such as methotrexate, mercaptopurine, fluorouracil, cytarabine, hydroxyurea; 2) interfering with DNA structure and functions, such as chlormethine, cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, busulfan, bleomycin, mitomycin, cis-platinum, and camptothecin; 3) interfering with RNA synthesis, such as dactinomycin D, adriamycin amycin, doxorubicin, and daunorubicin; 4) alkylating agents lininhibiting protein synthesis and the functions, such as vinblastine, harringtonine, paclitaxel, and L-asparagine amidohydrolase; 5) steroid hormones and and their antagonists, such as estrogen, androgen,adrenal cortical hormone, and tamoxifen.

  1. Lecturing contents and important points
  1. The classification of the anticancer drugs;
  2. The mechanisms of actions of anticancer drugs;
  3. Spectrum, adverse effects and clinical applications;
  4. Combinations of drugs and resistance.
  1. Self-study contents and key points

   Other anticancer drugs

  1. Definitions 

methotrexate,mercaptopurine, florouracil, cytarabine, hydroxyurea, cyclophosphamide,cisplatine,camptothecin,paclitaxel

  1. Study questions
  1. Please elucidate the classification of anticancer drugs, the characteristics of drug action, and clinical applications.
  2. Please elucidate the combinations of anticancer drugs, and give the examples.


Chapter 40: Immunosuppressants (self-study)


UNIT VIII: Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Autacoids


Chapter 41: Anti-inflammatory Drugs

 

  1. Objective and requirements

   To master both actions and mechanisms of antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs;

   To master the actions and clinical applications of aspirin;

   To understand the characteristics of anilines, pyrazolone, indoleacetic acid, and anthranilic acid;

   To know the actions and clinical applications of galanthidine, probenecid, and allopurinol in treatment of gust.

  1. Key points

    Mechanism of antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory Drugs

III. Lecturing contents and important points

  1. Effects of antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs on COX inhibition to reduce the synthesis of prostaglandin;
  2. Aspirin actions including antipyretic action, analgesic action, anti-inflammatory action, and antiplatelet effect, applying in ischemic cardiomyopathy and Myocardial Infarction;
  3. Actions and characteristics of anilines, pyrazolone, indoleacetic acid, merfnamic acid, monoclofenamic acid and ibuprofen;
  4. Actions and clinical applications of galanthidine, probenecid, and allopurinol in treatment of gust.

IV. Self-study contents and key points

Pharmacokinetic of aspirin

V.  Definitions

antipyretic analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, COX, aspirin, gout,  colchicine, probenecid

VI. Study Questions

What are the actions of aspirin and clinical applications?


Chapter 42: Autacoids and Autacoid Antagonists (self-study)


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experiments For Pharmacology

I. Name of experimental course: pharmacology

II. Course code: (the program shall prevail):100105 a

III. Nature of course: required

IV. Hours and Credits

Total hours: 120h

Total credits: 8

Experimental hours: 44h

V. Applicable professional

   Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Chinese Materia Medica, Biological Pharmacy,Medicine Trade

VI. Indicated textbook

《The experiment of pharmacology》, edited by yu-zhi tan, people's medical publishing house, 2008

VII. The task nature and purpose of the experiment course

Combining with the different functional drugs, we designed verification experiments on the basis of knowledge, technology and methods of pharmacology experiment, which make students master basic knowledge and skills of the pharmacological experiments, and verify the basic theory of pharmacology, and firmly grasp the basic concepts of pharmacology.  We carried out the experiment under the new drugs’ guidance of preclinical pharmacology estimated contents, methods and technical requirements, and find it necessary to study pharmacology in the process of drug discovery and evaluation. Students whose abilities to do practical operation and mutual cooperation, to think, to analyse and to solve the problem were improved know the scientific ways to acquire pharmacological knowledge, and their comprehensive quality were improved.

VIII. Basement of experiments

See Curriculum for Pharmacology

IX. Experimental methods and basic requirements

Give priority to with the verification experiment. Confirmatory experiments require students to carefully preparation before experimental courses, fully understand the experiment purpose, steps and operational considerations. Combined with experiment content review theory knowledge, predict the experimental results. Experiment teachers first overview of the basic content, operation steps and matters needing attention. Students themselves, in strict accordance with the requirements, standardize the operation, careful observation, accurate, timely, authentic records of experimental results. The teacher give guidance, summarized, analyzed the experiment results. After the experiment, finish the experiment report carefully. Required to master the selection of experimental animal, the commonly used code, capture, fixed, anesthesia, blood drug delivery methods and put to death. Master the animal drug dose conversion. To master the local effect, absorption of the drug; and therapeutic effect and adverse reaction; excitement and inhibition; selectivity of drug action; concepts of antagonism between drugs; familiared with the commonly used drugs dosage, understand the basic knowledge of the pharmacopoeia; the general principle of pharmacology experiment, model and lab report writing standards; familiared with the commonly used experimental instruments and equipment.
X. examination and grading:

Experimental results for 20% of the course grade. Lab report score 10%,  10% for attendance. For lack of experimental results will not be through the course.

 

 

 

 

XI. The experimental project Settings and content

N

Item

Content

Credits

Key instrument

1

 Animal capture and drug administration

The whole animal experiment of basic technology

4

Surgical instruments, biological signal acquisition system, etc

2

The diuretic effect of the drug

Learn diuretic experiment method, to observe the diuretic effect on water, electrolyte excretion

4

Measuring cylinder, syringes, etc

3

The analgesic action of drugs

Understand the analgesic drug screening and evaluation of experimental methods.Hot plate test in mice, mice body torsion experiment

4

Hot plate apparatus, syringes, etc

4

Anti-arrhythmic experiment

Mastering the anti-arrhythmic drug effect.Electrocardiogram (ecg) acquisition and analysis

4

Biological signal acquisition system, etc

5

Bronchial perfusion experiment

Made in vitro - bronchi specimens.To determine the effect of different drugs on bronchial caliber and mechanism of action

4

In vitro perfusion system, surgical instruments, etc

6

The influence of drugs on gastrointestinal motility

Master the characteristics of gastrointestinal peristalsis and influencing factors.Mastering the specimens of small intestine in mice

8

Scale,biological signal acquisition system,surgical instruments, etc